Useful information about Finland, including all the things to know before leaving for a trip or a holiday in this northern European state bathed by the Gulf of Bothnia.
Finland in a nutshell
- Capital: Helsinki
- Area in sq. Km: 338.145
- Population: 5.100.000 (first semester 2001)
- Religion: Protestant (Lutheran Evangelical)
Where is it
Finland borders Norway to the north, Sweden to the north west, Russia to the east and south east, is washed by the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the Baltic Sea to the south and the Gulf of Finland to the south.
The territory is formed by a base of archaeozoic rocks mainly granite and covered almost everywhere by a blanket of glacial materials.
The erosion of glaciers has formed over 100,000 lakes. In the northern part of Finland there are hills (extreme offshoots of the Scandinavian Alps).
In Lapland, on the border with Norway, there are mountains with peaks over 1000 meters, otherwise the territory of Finland is flat.
In the southern part of the country, oak woods extend, further north, coniferous forests, the tundra stands out at the northern end.
Finland's main rivers are Tornio, Kemi, Kokemaki and Oulu. The lakes cover almost 1/10 of the total area of the country. The main ones are: Saimaa, Paijanne, Inari, Pielinen.
Finland's climate is temperate cold with strong annual temperature fluctuations.
Winter is very cold and long with short days.
From late August to early May in the northern part of Finland you can witness the phenomenon of the Northern Lights, when the night sky brightens with a light that varies in color, time and space.
In summer, from June to August, the village is free from ice and the days are very long, particularly in June when in the north you can admire the spectacle of the midnight sun (the sun that does not set for 70 days ca. ) and even in the south the nights are short and clear.Recommended readings
- Helsinki (Finland): what to see in the capital
- Finland: useful information
- Aland (Finland): what to see in the islands
- Tampere (Finland): what to see
- Rovaniemi: what to see in the city of Santa Claus
First under the rule of Sweden then under that of Russia, Finland became independent in 1917.
Defended well by the invasion attempts made during the Second World War by the Soviet Union and Germany, Finland has developed a lot since the post-war period, from a rural economy to an ever expanding industrial economy.
As a member of the European Union, Finland was the first state in Northern Europe to immediately join the single currency system.
Form of state
Finland is a presidential republic with a unicameral parliament consisting of two hundred members that exercises political power.
Finland's population is made up of Finns with Swedish, Russian and Lapland minorities.
For climatic and productive reasons, the highest population density is found in southern cities, however it has an average population density among the lowest in Europe.
In Finland compared to Italy, the clock must be moved forward by one hour, throughout the year.
The language spoken by the population is Finnish (it belongs to the Uralic family of languages), 6% speak Swedish and another small minority speak Sami (the Sami language of Lapland)
Finland, despite being in a geographical position marginalized from Europe and in an unfavorable natural environment, has a high standard of living.
It manages to be self-sufficient from an agricultural point of view with products such as barley, oats, wheat, sugar beet and also cattle and pig breeding is practiced.
The exploitation of forests is crucial for Finland's economy as considerable quantities of timber and derived products such as plywood are exported.
The resources of the subsoil are also varied, even if the country imports some raw materials and energy.
The production of the steel industry, mechanical metallurgy, electricity and telecommunications is also relevant.
When to go
From the climatic point of view, the best time to go to Finland is the summer but, for those who do not suffer from the cold, the winter period is also very beautiful, characterized by dark days and temperatures mainly below freezing, especially in January.
In March, although there is still snow, temperatures are less rigid and the days begin to get brighter.
To enter Finland, Italian citizens need an identity card valid for travel abroad or a passport.
To call Finland from Italy, you must dial 00358 followed by the district code without the 0 and the subscriber number.
To call from Finland to Italy: 0039 followed by the area code and number.
The electric current is 220 volts. German sockets.
The official currency in Finland is the euro and credit cards are widespread.
How to get
The Finnish flag carrier Finnair carries out direct flights to Helsinki with departure from Milan, Rome and Venice in the summer.
The SAS and Blue 1 airlines also connect Italy to Finland.
The route includes the cities of Hamburg - Copenhagen - Stockholm, where there is boarding on the ferry that takes you to Helsinki or Turku.
Cross the Gotthard pass-Basel-Hamburg-Rostock where you can board the ferry to Hanko and then continue to Helsinki.
Or: Brenner, Innsbruck, Munich, Nuremberg, Kassel, Hamburg, Rostock and Hanko ferry and then Helsinki.
By car you can easily cross the borders of northern Sweden, and Norway.
Those of Russia with some difficulties.