Summary of the history of Egypt, from the floods of the Nile river and the establishment of kingdoms over the millennia, until the opening of the Suez canal and construction of the Aswan dam.
Egypt in short
The regularity and richness of the annual floods of the Nile river in Egyptian history, together with the natural semi-isolation, consisting of the deserts in the east and west, has allowed the development of one of the greatest civilizations in the world.
A unified kingdom that arose around 3200 BC. and ruled for three millennia by a series of grand dynasties.
Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and later the Arabs, who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the seventh century, remaining in power until almost the end of the first millennium AD.
A local military caste, the Mamelukes, took power from 1250 to 1517 AD, keeping it until the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks.
Apparently to protect its interests, Britain took control of the Egyptian government in 1882 but, despite this, loyalty to the Ottoman Empire was maintained until 1914.
Partially independent in 1922, Egypt gained full sovereignty after World War II.
After the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important transportation crossroads in the world but, despite this, it saw its public debt increase exponentially over time.
The completion of the Aswan dam in 1971 and the consequent Lake Nasser changed the place consecrated by the time of the Nile River, agriculture and the ecology of Egypt.
A dizzying growing population made economic growth problematic, countered above all by investments in tourist infrastructure.